The articles below are shared for educational purposes:
Bell’s palsy involves dysfunction of a nerve that controls facial muscles, resulting in weakness or paralysis of one side, or more rarely both sides, of the face. Most people with Bell’s palsy partially recover without treatment within two to three weeks, achieving full recovery within three or four months.
Integrative interventions including methylcobalamin, acetyl-L-carnitine, and omega-3 fatty acids can help improve recovery and protect nerves from inflammatory damage.
Causes and Risk Factors for Bell’s Palsy
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes zoster virus (chickenpox)
Commonly affects people ages 15‒50
Diabetes, pregnancy, and lowered immunity increase risk
Signs and Symptoms of Bell’s Palsy
One-sided facial paralysis that occurs over a few hours to a few days. This includes a droop to the mouth on the affected side and an inability to frown, close the eye, or produce tears.
This can cause the cornea to become dried out which could lead to long-term visual impairment.
In most cases, symptoms resolve completely. However, people who do not have some recovery within 21 days have a greater risk of lasting facial muscle weakness.
Note: It is important that a medical professional differentiates Bell’s palsy from stroke. Medical attention should be sought when symptoms of facial paralysis begin to appear irrespective of whether they are thought to be caused by Bell’s palsy or stroke.
Diagnosis of Bell’s Palsy
Bell’s palsy is a clinical diagnosis based on symptoms as well as history and physical exam findings.
Two grading scales are used to quantify the severity of Bell’s palsy: the House-Brackmann Facial Nerve Grading System and the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System.
Conventional Treatment for Bell’s Palsy
Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation. Artificial tears and ophthalmic ointments can be used to prevent damage to the cornea.
Surgery to relieve compression on the facial nerve may be necessary in some cases.
Novel and Emerging Strategies for Bell’s Palsy
Infusion therapy consists of corticosteroids mixed in an infusion solution containing dextran and pentoxifylline, which increase blood flow to the facial nerve.
Studies have found that laser therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be helpful for recovery from Bell’s palsy.
Dietary and Lifestyle Interventions
A low-arginine/high-lysine diet may help slow the growth of the herpes simplex virus and shorten the duration of Bell’s palsy. Foods low in arginine and high in lysine include dairy products, fish, and chicken.
Acupuncture may relieve symptoms of Bell’s palsy, and biofeedback can treat involuntary muscle movements that sometimes occur after incomplete recovery from Bell’s palsy.
Methylcobalamin: Methylcobalamin plus a steroid helped patients recover much faster than a steroid alone in a study of subjects who had Bell’s palsy longer than two weeks.
Acetyl-L-carnitine: A study of subjects with facial palsy found that supplementing with acetyl-L-carnitine along with methylprednisolone reduced a measure of paralysis by half, whereas it remained the same with methylprednisolone alone.
Omega-3 fatty acids: Omega-3 fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) support the creation of different anti-inflammatory compounds that can protect nerves from damage.
Niacin: In a series of 74 cases treated with 100‒250 mg of niacin, 73 cases resulted in good facial nerve response within 2‒4 weeks.
Anti-viral interventions: Natural agents shown to combat viral infection, including licorice, zinc, lysine, and reishi mushrooms, may be of some benefit for those affected by Bell’s palsy.
Bell’s palsy is a disorder in which a nerve that controls the facial muscles becomes dysfunctional, resulting in weakness or paralysis of one side, or more rarely, both sides of the face. It often manifests rapidly, such that those affected may rise from bed in the morning with inexplicable one-sided facial weakness or paralysis and fear that they have experienced a stroke (Baugh 2013).
Bell’s palsy is the most common disorder affecting the facial nerve, with more than 60 000 cases diagnosed each year in the United States (Kölln 2009; Zandian 2014; Basic-Kes 2013; NINDS 2012). Bell’s palsy can occur at almost any age and is equally common in men and women, but diabetics have a 4-fold increased risk. Also, the risk triples during pregnancy (especially in the third trimester or first week postpartum) (Tiemstra 2007; Marson 2000; Ronthal 2013a; Zandian 2014; Riga 2012; Kölln 2009).
The core underlying cause responsible for Bell’s palsy is not known with certainty, but evidence indicates that inflammation and reactivation of a dormant viral infection affecting the facial nerve, also called the seventh cranial nerve, appear to be important contributing factors in many cases. Herpes viruses, specifically herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes zoster virus, which causes chickenpox, are thought to be involved in a substantial proportion of cases (Holland 2004; Zandian 2014).
Physicians may use corticosteroids to treat Bell’s palsy as they are helpful in reducing inflammation of the facial nerve and may shorten symptom duration if initiated soon after onset. Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir are sometimes used for the condition. However, some studies suggest that antiviral drugs do not provide significant benefits when used alone or together with steroids such as prednisolone. Therefore, if there is a benefit with antiviral drugs, the benefit is likely modest at best (Baugh 2013; Ronthal 2013b; Lampert 2012; Sullivan 2007; Holland 2004; Zandian 2014; Gronseth 2012).
Given the role of inflammation in Bell’s palsy, natural agents that help manage the inflammatory response, such as curcumin and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, may help support a more balanced immune response during viral reactivation in the facial nerve. In addition, nutrients that support healthy nerve cell function such as vitamin B12 and acetyl-L-carnitine may also confer benefits to those afflicted with Bell’s palsy. For example, vitamin B12 has been shown to improve recovery time of facial nerve function in Bell’s palsy patients compared to those treated with only steroids. Additionally, nutrients that inhibit the herpes viruses may be supportive (Lu 2010; Singer 2008; Kandhare 2012; Kulkarni 2010; Liu 2013; Mezzina 1992; Jalaludin 1995; Kennedy 2010; Fiore 2008; Pompei 1979; Pu 2013; Sekizawa 2001; Nabeshima 2012; Gaby 2006; O’Dell 1990; NINDS 2012; Flodin 1997; Griffith 1987; Ozden 2011; EBSCO CAM Review Board 2011).
In this protocol, you will learn about the biology of Bell’s palsy and possible triggers. You will also learn how to recognize the signs and symptoms of this condition, and how it is diagnosed and conventionally treated. Finally, you will learn about novel and emerging therapies as well as integrative interventions that may help speed recovery and reduce the severity of symptoms.
Bell’s palsy is believed to be caused by inflammation of the facial nerve (Mayo Clinic 2012a). The facial nerve controls many of the muscles involved in facial expressions and also carries sensory information from the anterior (frontal) two-thirds of the tongue (Misulis 2010). In addition, this nerve also helps control the lacrimal glands (responsible for tear production) and submandibular glands (involved in producing saliva) (Kosins 2007; Zandian 2014; Ronthal 2013a).
The facial nerve passes through small canals in the skull along its path to innervate the facial muscles. When a dormant virus reactivates and migrates into the facial nerve, an inflammatory response ensues, leading to swelling and compression of the nerve within these small bony passages. Non-infectious factors, such as autoimmune processes, may also cause inflammation of the facial nerve and contribute to Bell’s palsy (Zandian 2014; Ogawa 1982; Sekiya 1990; Gantz 1983; Kölln 2011).
Most people with Bell’s palsy recover considerably well without treatment within 2 to 3 weeks, achieving full recovery within 3 or 4 months. About 70% of the patients with complete paralysis and up to 94% of the patients with partial paralysis completely recover their facial muscle function, even without treatment. On rare occasions, long-term problems such as facial weakness or involuntary facial movements may arise. Overall, 80-90% of patients have complete recovery within 6 weeks to 3 months. Nevertheless, Bell’s palsy may produce psychologically troubling symptoms such as drooling and abnormal facial appearance; some patients also report changes in hearing in the ear on the affected side, dizziness, abnormal taste sensation, pain or discomfort around the jaw, and difficulty eating or drinking (Taylor 2013; Holland 2004; Baugh 2013; Kölln 2009; Mooney 2013; Zandian 2014; NINDS 2012).
One important consideration is that inability to close the eye on the affected side of the face can cause the cornea to become dried out (A.D.A.M. 2013), which could lead to long-term visual impairment. Thus, it is important to seek proper medical care from a qualified healthcare provider to ensure appropriate precautions are taken. Consulting a physician as soon as symptoms emerge is also important because delayed diagnosis and treatment may increase the likelihood of long-term problems (Taylor 2013; Holland 2004; Baugh 2013; Kölln 2009; Mooney 2013; Ronthal 2013b).
Bell’s palsy has historically been considered an idiopathic condition (ie, a condition that arises spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause), but it is now known to be closely associated with exposure to certain viruses (Ferri 2014; Holland 2004; Ronthal 2013a). The virus most closely associated with Bell’s palsy is herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). One study found that 11 of 14 patients with Bell’s palsy (79%) had evidence of infection with HSV-1 in the region affected compared to none of the controls (Murakami 1996).
HSV-1 and other members of the herpes family of viruses are notable for having two distinct stages in their life cycles. During the first stage, also known as productive infection, the virus is actively replicating and making new copies of itself. Afterward, the virus is able to go into the second phase, known as latent infection. During this time, copies of the virus that are not actively replicating remain in the sensory neuron and cause no symptoms of infection. However, the virus may become reactivated and give rise to an active infection (Taylor 2002). Several studies suggest the reactivation of latent infection with herpes viruses, including HSV-1 and herpes zoster virus (chickenpox), represents a major initiating factor of Bell’s palsy (Holland 2004). Other infectious agents may be involved in some cases as well, including adenovirus, Coxsackievirus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, mumps, and rubella (Ferri 2014; Morgan 1992; Zandian 2014).
Some people may have a genetic predisposition for Bell’s palsy as well (Ronthal 2013a). Reports of families with multiple cases of Bell’s palsy among immediate relatives suggest there may be some hereditary aspects of Bell’s palsy (Desanto 1969; Hageman 1990; Clement 2000).
Bell’s palsy can occur at any age, but it most commonly affects people between the ages of 15 and 50 (Monini 2010; Peitersen 2002; Zandian 2014). Diabetes increases the risk of developing Bell’s palsy and is present in 5-10% of people with Bell’s palsy (Zandian 2014; Ronthal 2013a). Pregnancy as well as recent upper respiratory ailments or a weakened immune system can also increase the risk of Bell’s palsy (Baugh 2013; Ferri 2014; Monini 2010).
The classic sign of Bell’s palsy is unilateral facial paralysis that typically occurs over a matter of hours to a few days (Ferri 2014; Ronthal 2013a). The paralysis may be partial (one-third of cases) or total (two-thirds of cases) and affects both the upper and lower facial muscles (Misulis 2010; Ferri 2014). Sometimes both sides of the face may be affected simultaneously, but this is rare; one study found that bilateral simultaneous facial palsy occurred in less than 1% of cases (Kim 2008).
Typically, the facial weakness worsens during the first few days but usually improves thereafter (Holland 2004; Misulis 2010). The forehead will stop furrowing and the corner of the mouth will droop on the affected side. Another feature of Bell’s palsy is an inability to close the eye as a result of the lower eyelid drooping. Attempting to close the eye can cause the eyeball to roll upward, known as Bell’s phenomenon (Tiemstra 2007). Frowning and pursing of the lips are also impaired by Bell’s palsy (Misulis 2010).
Some individuals with Bell’s palsy describe a feeling of numbness in their face, although facial sensation is left intact (Misulis 2010). Bell’s palsy can impair the formation of tears (lacrimation) as well, resulting in dryness of the eye. However, because Bell’s palsy also impairs control of the eyelids, tears may spill out of the affected eye giving the appearance of over-tearing (Tiemstra 2007; Misulis 2010). In some cases, parts of the facial nerve that supply the tongue and ear can be affected, resulting in loss of taste on the frontal two-thirds of the tongue or intensification of loud noises, also known as hyperacusis (Misulis 2010).
In most cases, the symptoms of Bell’s palsy will resolve completely. However, Bell’s palsy can cause some long-term complications. In some people, the facial nerve will not recover completely, resulting in lasting facial muscle weakness or partial paralysis (Mayo Clinic 2012a). Generally speaking, the more severe the muscle weakness/paralysis, the greater the likelihood for long-term muscle weakness. People who do not have some recovery within 21 days have a greater risk of having lasting facial muscle weakness (Ronthal 2013b).
If the facial nerve does not recover properly, some new nerve fibers may develop disorganized or misdirected connections. This can cause some facial muscles to involuntarily contract along with other muscles, a phenomenon known as synkinesis (Mayo Clinic 2012b). In addition, eye dryness and an inability to close the eyes completely can cause the cornea to become scratched, resulting in lasting problems with vision (Mayo Clinic 2012b).
Differentiating Bell’s Palsy From Stroke
Both Bell’s palsy and a stroke can cause paralysis of one side of the face. However, Bell’s palsy and stroke can usually be differentiated by the presence of other symptoms (Fahimi 2013).
By definition, Bell’s palsy only affects the facial nerve, so the symptoms will be limited to facial muscle paralysis/weakness, decreased tear formation, and problems with taste. Although a stroke can cause similar symptoms, a stroke may also cause other symptoms, such as problems speaking or slurred speech, trouble understanding others, paralysis of the arm or leg on the same side of the body as the facial paralysis, vision problems, and headache (Mayo Clinic 2014).
A physical exam can help distinguish Bell’s palsy (a problem with the peripheral nerves) from a stroke (a problem with the central nervous system), which, unlike Bell’s palsy, will typically cause problems with the muscles of the lower face only (Holland 2004; Misulis 2010; Kölln 2011). As a result, a stroke will typically not cause weakness of the eyelid and forehead, whereas Bell’s palsy can cause impairment of these regions of the face. Generally, when paralysis is caused by a stroke, additional muscles on the same side of the body are usually involved (A.D.A.M. 2013).
Fortunately, emergency room physicians are generally very good at differentiating stroke from Bell’s palsy. Medical attention should be sought when symptoms of facial paralysis begin to appear irrespective of whether they are thought to be caused by Bell’s palsy or stroke (Fahimi 2013)
Bell’s palsy is a clinical diagnosis based on symptoms as well as history and physical exam findings (Misulis 2010). The physician may ask the patient to “show me your teeth” (for palsy of lower facial muscles) and “close your eyes” (for assessing upper facial muscles). The timing of onset of symptoms is also important, as Bell’s palsy typically has a sudden onset and progression as opposed to other causes of facial palsy such as tumors, which typically cause a gradual progression of muscle weakness over the course of weeks (Baugh 2013).
Pregnancy, diabetes, and recent influenza or other upper respiratory illnesses are also suggestive (Baugh 2013). Multiple family members with a history of Bell’s palsy may also point to the diagnosis. Notably, certain familial cases of Bell’s palsy may be associated with increased risk of lasting problems with control of the eyelid, dry eye, and “crocodile tears” (Zaidi 2005).
Examination of the ear, mouth, head, neck and skin is also important. Polyps in the ear may be a sign of cholesteatoma, a growth of skin tissue that can compress the facial nerve. Careful examination of the soft palate, tongue, and tonsils can help rule out Ramsay Hunt syndrome (a syndrome linked to varicella zoster virus infection that causes facial paralysis and a characteristic rash) or a parotid tumor (tumor of a salivary gland found in the cheek). Finally, the skin should be carefully examined for signs of Lyme disease (ie, circular, outwardly expanding rash), which can also cause facial palsy (Holland 2004; Mosshammer 2013). Notably, although Bell’s palsy is rare in children younger than 10 years old, up to 50% of reported cases of facial paralysis in this population are attributable to Lyme disease (Zandian 2014).
Additional testing is not typically needed for Bell’s palsy. However, laboratory tests such as a complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Kassner 2012), C-reactive protein (CRP), Lyme titer, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and liver function tests may help if another cause of facial weakness is likely. Imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may also help rule out a tumor in the case of a gradual onset of facial weakness/paralysis (Misulis 2010).
Electroneurography can help provide prognostic information for people with complete facial muscle paralysis. Electroneurography uses electricity to stimulate the facial muscle on both sides of the face. The response of the facial muscle evoked by the stimulus is lessened on the side of the face affected by Bell’s palsy, and the degree of nerve degeneration can be quantified by comparing the responses on both sides of the face. People with Bell’s palsy whose muscle response is found to be weakened by ≥90% in the first three weeks are more likely to have long-term facial muscle weakness or trouble with involuntary movements of facial muscles than those with less severe findings (Gilden 2004).
The severity of Bell’s palsy can be graded using different scales. Two commonly used systems are the House-Brackmann Facial Nerve Grading System and the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (Ng 2013). The House-Brackmann system allows clinicians to classify facial nerve problems into six different categories based on facial muscle strength and function and the appearance of the face at rest. The system also allows clinicians to evaluate the recovery and monitor disease progression and the response to treatment (Reitzen 2009; Yen 2003). The Sunnybrook scale measures facial symmetry at rest and during voluntary movements as well as involuntary muscle movements and scores them on a scale of 0 to 100. Although both systems can be used to help clinicians assess the severity of Bell’s palsy, they may not adequately assess aspects of Bell’s palsy such as facial comfort and problems with tearing that can affect quality of life (Ng 2013).
Conventional treatment for Bell’s palsy hinges on corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation and help increase the likelihood of recovery of facial muscle function (Lampert 2012; Baugh 2013; Gilden 2004; Ronthal 2013b). A 10-day course of corticosteroids, such as 10 days of 50 mg of prednisolone or 60 mg prednisone for 5 days with a 5-day tapered dose, initiated within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms, is often used (Baugh 2013). Antiviral medications, such as acyclovir (Zovirax®) and valacyclovir (Valtrex®) can be added to the corticosteroid regimen, but studies have been inconclusive as to whether antivirals offer any significant benefit (Baugh 2013; Ronthal 2013b; Lampert 2012).
The impaired tearing that accompanies Bell’s palsy can put the eye at risk for damage. The cornea can become dry and scratched, which can lead to permanent vision problems. It is recommended that, while awake, patients should use artificial tears every hour, and at night they should apply ophthalmic ointments. Eye patches or protective glasses may also help (Ronthal 2013b).
Infusion therapy is an approach for treating Bell’s palsy using corticosteroids mixed in an infusion solution containing dextran and pentoxifylline. The corticosteroids help reduce inflammation of the facial nerve and the combination of dextran and pentoxifylline increase blood flow to the nerve, helping it recover from the deleterious effects of the inflammation (Kinishi 1989). Although this approach has not been heavily researched in recent years, multiple studies in Europe and Asia have found it to be an effective method of treating Bell’s palsy and suggested it may be more effective than steroids alone (Sittel, Stennert 2000; Sittel, Sittel 2000; Kinishi 1989; Kinishi 1991). One study compared the effectiveness of 7 days of infusion therapy with 500 mL of dextran solution plus 500 mg of hydrocortisone (starting at 500 mg and tapering down to 100 mg) to oral hydrocortisone. Patients with complete paralysis who received infusion therapy had a significantly better recovery rate compared to the oral hydrocortisone group (Kinishi 1989). Another study by the same investigators modified the infusion therapy by adding pentoxifylline. It was found that 87% of the patients with complete palsy had total recovery when treated with modified infusion therapy compared to 68% of those receiving oral steroids (Kinishi 1991). Finally, a study of 239 people with Bell’s palsy found that a dextran and pentoxifylline infusion combined with prednisone (starting dose 250 mg and tapering over 18 days) provided total recovery (based on the House-Brackmann scale) in 92% of people with complete facial paralysis and 97% of people with partial facial paralysis; results were superior when therapy started within 3 days of developing palsy (Sittel, Stennert 2000; Sittel, Sittel 2000).
Photobiomodulation/laser therapy utilizes different wavelengths of light to help repair cells. One study examined the effects of laser treatments using laser light with wavelengths of 660 and 780 nm on Bell’s palsy in a 3-year old child. The treatments, which began shortly after the onset of the facial paralysis, lasted for 15-30 minutes at a time. After 11 sessions over the course of three weeks, the child’s facial muscle function had returned to normal (Fontana 2013). Another study found that 12 sessions with either a laser at 760 nm or a LED light of 850 nm also cured or resulted in significant improvement in 11 of 14 patients with Bell’s palsy (Colombo 2012). In 2014 the efficacy of low-intensity and high-intensity laser therapy was investigated in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial on 48 subjects with Bell’s palsy. The participants were divided into three groups: 1) high-intensity laser therapy plus facial massage and exercise, 2) low-intensity laser therapy plus facial massage and exercise, and 3) facial massage and exercise only. The laser therapy was administered to 8 points on the affected side of the face 3 times weekly for 6 consecutive weeks. Recovery of facial function was measured at 3 and 6 weeks following treatment using the House-Brackmann scale and the facial disability scale. The researchers concluded “…both [high-intensity laser therapy] and [low-intensity laser therapy] are effective physical therapy modalities for the recovery of patients with Bell’s palsy, with [high-intensity laser therapy] showing a slightly greater improvement than [low-intensity laser therapy]” (Alayat 2014).
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy involves sitting in a pressurized (hyperbaric) chamber breathing 100% oxygen for approximately an hour. These treatments increase the amount of oxygen in the blood and may help increase oxygen delivery to the facial nerve, thus helping speed recovery after Bell’s palsy (Holland 2012). Although there is a scarcity of well-designed randomized controlled trials examining the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on Bell’s palsy, one study did compare the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatments to corticosteroids for people with Bell’s palsy (Holland 2012; Racic 1997). This study used one-hour sessions in the hyperbaric oxygen chamber, twice daily, five days per week for up to 3 weeks or until recovery along with oral placebo, compared to normal atmospheric oxygen (21%) with 450 mg of prednisone delivered over eight days. After 9 months, greater than 95% of the people receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy had fully recovered compared to less than 76% of those receiving prednisone. Furthermore, the hyperbaric oxygen-treated group showed significant improvement in nerve excitability measures compared to the prednisone-treated group (Racic 1997). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy represents a possible integrative therapy for the treatment of Bell’s palsy, especially as it has minimal side effects (Holland 2012).
Since Bell’s palsy is linked to reactivation of the herpes simplex virus, dietary strategies that help fight this virus may also prove effective at treating or shortening the duration of Bell’s palsy. One strategy is to deprive the virus of the amino acids it needs to make the proteins required for replication. One amino acid that appears to be particularly important for the replication of herpes simplex virus is arginine. Multiple studies have found that depriving the virus of this amino acid can halt its replication (Inglis 1968; Tankersley 1964). Reducing the activity of the herpes simplex virus as a result of a low-arginine diet could help prevent or shorten the severity or duration of the inflammation. On the other hand, the amino acid lysine can help slow the growth of the herpes virus, as it can make it harder for the virus to utilize arginine. Increasing lysine intake, either via supplementation or by eating lysine-rich foods combined with a low-arginine diet may help combat the herpes virus. Foods high in lysine and low in arginine include dairy products, fish, and some kinds of animal proteins such as chicken. Foods such as nuts and grains are high in arginine (Gaby 2006).
Acupuncture, a technique that originated in Traditional Chinese Medicine, may also be used to treat Bell’s palsy. It involves inserting small needles into specific points on the skin to harmonize the body’s life force (also known as qi [or chi]), strengthen the body, and improve the function and healing of nerves (Chen 2010). This process is generally considered to be safe and can be used to treat many of the symptoms of Bell’s palsy (Kim 2012). Multiple studies have found that acupuncture can help improve symptoms and return normal facial function in people with Bell’s palsy, but analyses of these trials have found that their quality is rather limited, which makes it hard to draw firm conclusions about the efficacy of acupuncture for Bell’s palsy (Kim 2012; Chen 2010; Cumberworth 2012).
Biofeedback is a process in which people are helped to learn how to voluntarily control muscles and body functions that were previously thought to be involuntary. It can be used to treat certain disorders, including the involuntary muscle movements that can occur after incomplete recovery from Bell’s palsy. In one small study, researchers instructed individuals with Bell’s palsy to work on keeping their eyes open during 3 mouth movements (pursing the lips, baring the teeth, and puffing out the cheeks), which can be difficult for people with Bell’s palsy. After 10 months of 30 minutes of daily training, these people had better facial symmetry than the control group that received no treatment (Nakamura 2003).
Physical therapy can also help people with Bell’s palsy recover muscle function. It appears that facial exercises, such as practicing emotional expressions (Beurskens 2006), may help improve muscle function and reduce involuntary facial movements in people with Bell’s palsy (Teixeira 2011). Physical rehabilitation, consisting of stretching and manual and verbal input, applied at an early stage resulted in overall improvement of the condition of Bell’s palsy patients and accelerated their recovery compared with non-rehabilitated patients (Barbara 2010).
Methylcobalamin is a form of vitamin B12 necessary for nervous system maintenance (Tanaka 2013). In a study on 60 subjects with Bell’s palsy of greater than 2-weeks duration, researchers divided subjects into 3 treatment groups of 20 subjects each: 500 mcg intramuscular injections of methylcobalamin 3 times weekly for 8 weeks; 60 mg daily of prednisolone tapered over 3 weeks; and methylcobalamin plus prednisolone. After one week of treatment, the methylcobalamin only and the methylcobalamin plus prednisolone groups had improved significantly, but participants receiving only the steroid showed just slight improvement. It took, on average, about 2 weeks for participants in the methylcobalamin and the methylcobalamin plus prednisolone groups to achieve complete recovery, whereas an average of 9 weeks passed before those in the steroid-only group were fully recovered. The scientists who conducted the study noted “In this study, the efficacy of methylcobalamin in patients with Bell’s palsy was confirmed. Methylcobalamin-treated patients recovered much faster than those treated with steroid alone. Recovery was seen as early as the first week of treatment” (Jalaludin 1995). Because methylcobalamin is generally considered safe and is relatively inexpensive, it represents an intriguing natural option for treating Bell’s palsy (Sickels 2008).
Acetyl-L-carnitine is a compound found throughout both the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays a role in a number of processes, including the processing of fatty acids. Therapeutically, it can help damaged neurons regenerate and reduce neuronal damage after injury (Flatters 2006). Studies have found that acetyl-L-carnitine is effective for treating various forms of neuropathy, including diabetic and drug-induced neuropathies (Flatters 2006; Sima 2005). A randomized, placebo-controlled study on 43 subjects with idiopathic facial palsy found that one month of daily administration of 3 g of oral acetyl-L-carnitine along with daily administration of 50 mg of methylprednisolone for 14 days sped functional recovery of the facial nerve compared to methylprednisolone plus placebo. After 10 days of treatment a measure of paralysis was reduced by half in the supplement group, whereas in the placebo group it remained the same during this period (Mezzina 1992).
Given the relatively benign nature of Bell’s palsy, and its typically limited disease course and good recovery prognosis in most cases, few human clinical trials have examined integrative treatment options. Nevertheless, owing to the inflammation and nerve involvement intrinsic to the pathogenesis of Bell’s palsy, several natural agents that promote neuronal health and quell inflammation may confer benefits. The following integrative therapies may be able to target some of the pathologic mechanisms underlying Bell’s palsy.
Omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized in the body into compounds that reduce inflammation (Calder 2006; Calder 2008; Simopoulos 2002). One omega-3 fatty acid, called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is able to inhibit signaling of a pro-inflammatory molecule called NF-ĸB and also reduces levels of other chemicals that trigger inflammation, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (Lu 2010; Singer 2008). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), another omega-3 fatty acid, has similar effects (Lu 2010). These fatty acids can also lead to the creation of different chemicals that can protect nerves from damage (Bazan 2007). As a result, a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids and low in omega-6 fatty acids may be able to help reduce inflammation (Calder 2006; Calder 2008; Simopoulos 2002), although this has not been specifically tested for Bell’s palsy. Fish oil is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids (Simopoulos 2002).
Curcumin. Curcumin is a yellow compound found in turmeric that has potent anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown to help protect against nerve damage caused by diabetes and alcohol (Kandhare 2012; Kulkarni 2010), possibly by protecting neurons from damage caused by inflammation (Kulkarni 2010). Specifically, curcumin is able to reduce inflammation by increasing the activity of proteins that inhibit the activity of NF-ĸB, a major trigger for inflammation. Consequently, it is able to suppress the levels of many molecules that play a role in inflammation, including TNF-α, prostaglandins, and COX-2. By reducing inflammation, curcumin has been shown to protect neurons in the brain from damage from inadequate blood flow in a rat model of stroke (Liu 2013). Curcumin is also able to protect neuronal cells in culture from inflammation and toxicity produced by beta-amyloid protein, which is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. Beneficial effects of curcumin were also observed in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (Potter 2013). In addition, curcumin may activate genes that protect neurons from oxidative damage (Scapagnini 2006) and has been found to protect cultured neurons from oxidative damage (Huang 2011). Although the benefits of curcumin have not been tested specifically for Bell’s palsy, its benefits in other neurological conditions suggest that it could be helpful in treating the disease.
The Chronic Inflammation protocol provides a review of several additional interventions that may help reduce inflammation.
Niacin. Niacin (vitamin B3) is a vitamin that can cause blood vessels to dilate, which is why it causes flushing in many people. This increased blood flow may help speed the healing of the facial nerve. Some evidence suggests that niacin, administered orally or via intramuscular injection, may be useful in treating Bell’s palsy, although data are limited. In a series of 74 cases treated with 100-250 mg of niacin, all but one case resulted in good facial nerve response within 2 to 4 weeks (eg, an observer would be unable to point out which side of the face was paralyzed). In 39 of the 74 cases, treatment began within 2 days of the onset of paralysis and these individuals had complete recovery within 14 days (Kime 1958).
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What is Bell’s palsy?
Bell’s palsy is a mysterious condition that affects about 40,000 Americans each year. In Bell’s palsy, one half of the face abruptly becomes temporarily paralyzed. This paralysis usually begins suddenly and reaches peak paralysis within 48 hours.
People with Bell’s palsy might experience a number of uncomfortable symptoms, including total paralysis or pronounced weakness on one side of the face. The weak side typically becomes flat and expressionless and affected people might feel a heaviness or numbness in their faces, even though normal sensation remains. Other symptoms include a drooping appearance on the affected side of the face and impairment of tear and saliva functions.
If the upper part of the face is involved, affected people may have problems with their eyes. Due to the paralysis, affected people are often unable to close their eyes and dryness is a problem. In extreme cases, this dryness can result in eye damage or even blindness. To help avoid these problems, some physicians recommend the use of paper tape at night to keep the affected eye closed and lubricated. In addition, people with Bell’s palsy may experience loss of taste or abnormally enhanced hearing because the muscle that stretches the eardrum is paralyzed.
Most people with Bell’s palsy (about 80%) recover within weeks or months. Among those who don’t recover fully, the face may continue to be weak on the affected side and droop. About one person in 60 will experience Bell’s palsy at some point in their lifetimes. It can occur at all ages, but is most common between the ages of 15 and 60 (NINDS, Apr 2003)
What causes Bell’s Palsy?
Doctors and scientists haven’t found the exact reason that Bell’s palsy occurs, but research shows that the cause of Bell’s palsy is often connected to types of viral infections or people with diabetes (Webmd, Dec 2016). Some examples of viral infections (Mayo Clinic, Dec 2014) include the following:
Cold sores and genital herpes (herpes simplex)
Chickenpox and shingles (herpes zoster)
Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr)
Respiratory illnesses (adenovirus)
German measles (rubella)
Mumps (mumps virus)
Flu (influenza B)
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (coxsackievirus)
Doctors believe that the paralysis is caused by damage to the seventh cranial nerve, known as the “facial nerve”. This nerve goes through a narrow passage within the skull. When the nerve swells, it pushes up against the skull, and prevents it from working normally (Webmd, Oct 2016). The condition is associated with presence of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1), which suggests that reactivation of this virus in the facial nerve might be responsible for the condition. Varicella herpes zoster has also been implicated.
According to the herpes theory, about 80% of Bell’s palsy cases are caused by reactivation of HSV 1 or varicella zoster (a member of the herpes family). HSV1 is most commonly associated with oral lesions, as opposed to HSV2, which is most commonly associated with genital lesions. Varicella zoster is responsible for chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. The herpes virus can be transported to the facial nerve, where it may remain dormant until it activates and causes Bell’s palsy (Lambert T 2004). Although this theory has yet to be proven absolutely, supporting evidence is strong enough that Bell’s palsy is often treated with antiviral drugs (acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir) used to kill the herpes virus. To date, although viral DNA has been found in the facial nerves of patients with Bell’s palsy, no studies have actually found actively replicating herpes viruses (Linder T et al 2005).
No single test can diagnose Bell’s palsy. Doctors will ask you to move various facial muscles, such as frowning, closing your eyes, and lifting your eyebrows. Often times, in order to diagnosis Bell’s palsy, Doctors will first rule out other possible causes for facial paralysis, such as strokes, infections, Lyme Disease, and tumors (Mayo Clinic, Dec 2014).
There are two classic characteristics of Bell’s palsy that help guide diagnosis (Ferri FF 2004; Smith JF 2004):
The symptoms of Bell’s palsy have a quick onset.
They affect the entire half of the face, while stroke or cerebral tumor usually causes paralysis below the eye.
Below are a variety of diseases that mimic Bell’s palsy paralysis. These diseases often need to be ruled out before reaching an official Bell’s palsy diagnosis.
Differential Diagnosis for Facial Nerve Palsy (link)
History of tick exposure, rash, or arthralgias; exposure to areas where Lyme disease is endemic
Gradual onset; ear pain, fever, and conductive hearing loss
Ramsay Hunt syndrome
Herpes zoster virus
Pronounced prodrome of pain; vesicular eruption in ear canal or pharynx
Sarcoidosis or Guillain-Barré syndrome
More often bilateral
Cholesteatoma, parotid gland
Additional neurologic symptoms
Extremities on affected side often involved
Metastases, primary brain
Gradual onset; mental status changes; history of cancer
The Disease Course
In approximately 80% of cases, Bell’s palsy resolves completely within three months. However, 15% of patients will experience facial asymmetry, and 5% will show persistent neurological impairment or disfigurement (Brody R et al 1999; Lambert T 2004).
Besides antiviral drugs, the standard treatment for Bell’s palsy is corticosteroids such as prednisone. These drugs have been shown to reduce inflammation of the facial nerve, which minimizes compression and damage (Adour KK et al 1996), although a few studies have found that steroids are ineffective (Salinas RA et al 2004). Some studies have also suggested that antivirals are effective only if prescribed early in the disease course (Lejeune D et al 2002).
In severe cases, surgical treatment might be recommend, although this course of treatment is associated with a high risk of hearing loss, and many clinicians recommend against it. The surgery used to treat Bell’s palsy is known as decompression surgery. It is used to relieve pressure on the affected facial nerve.
A number of alternative or complementary therapies have been studied for Bell’s palsy. Many people believe that facial massage will help relieve the condition, although there is evidence that facial massage will not help (Kasper DL et al 2005). Acupuncture combined with exercise therapy has been shown to increase therapeutic effect, with a cure rate of 66.7 percent among people on combined therapy compared with a cure rate of 46.7 percent in a control group (Qu Y 2005).
Vitamin B12 has also been documented to improve the symptoms of Bell’s palsy. In one study, three groups of patients were tested: one received methylcobalamin (vitamin B12), one received corticosteroids, and the third received methylcobalamin in combination with corticosteroids. At the end of the study, the patients in both methylcobalamin groups showed greater improvement in their symptoms than those in the corticosteroid group (Jalaludin MA 1995).
Other supplements have attracted attention in Bell’s palsy but have not been subjected to rigorous scientific testing. Some people with Bell’s palsy report symptom relief from omega-3 fish oils, which are naturally anti-inflammatory and may work by relieving the nerve inflammation (Bells Palsy Association 2004).
Life Extension Foundation Recommendations
Patients with Bell’s palsy might want to wear eye protection, if directed by a physician. The standard therapy for Bell’s palsy is antiviral drugs combined with corticosteroids. This treatment may be enhanced by taking the following supplements:
Bell’s Palsy Safety Caveats
An aggressive program of dietary supplementation should not be launched without the supervision of a qualified physician. Several of the nutrients suggested in this protocol may have adverse effects. These include:
For more information see the Safety Appendix
There are several reasons why this facial nerve can become pinched. The most common cause is the herpes simplex virus (cold sores or genital herpes). Other known viruses include herpes zoster (chickenpox and shingles), Epstein-Barr (mononucleosis) and cytomegalovirus (mono-like syndrome). It has also been linked to Lyme disease, pregnancy, diabetes and upper-respiratory infections.
Most people will recover from Bell’s palsy within six months without treatment, depending on the severity of symptoms. For more severe or prolonged symptoms, your physician may recommend physical therapy, prescription medications or even alternative therapies.
There are two types of prescription medications used to treat Bell’s palsy, but study results have been mixed. Corticosteriods, such as prednisone, can reduce swelling and inflammation, which, for some, can lead to improvement. Antiviral drugs, such as Famvir, may be given to those with known viral infections. Physical therapy to massage and exercise the facial muscles can reduce the extent of weakness and paralysis, which can reduce the risk of developing permanent damage to the muscles.
Alternative therapies such as biofeedback, acupuncture, relaxation techniques and vitamin therapy (B-12, B-6 and zinc) have proven successful in reducing the symptoms and duration of Bell’s palsy for some people.
I am not sure that Italian doctors know something about the condition we do not know; however, I believe they may simply be more accepting of alternative therapies. American doctors are a bit more skeptical, which can be both a blessing and hindrance, depending on the situation. In terms of Bell’s palsy, I don’t see anything wrong with vitamin therapy. Even if it doesn’t work, it is safe and, chances are, recovery will take place on its own anyway.
Doctor Gott is a retired physician. He writes for United Media. If readers would like to contact Dr. Gott, they may write him at Dr. Gott c/o United Media, 200 Madison Ave., 4th fl., New York, NY 10016.
Additional info: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1001/p997.html